Knowledge Base

Further Reading on CBD and Hemp Oil

As the landscape of hemp oil and CBD expands, we encounter an increasing amount of research on its ability to optimize health. More and more of these articles are recieving government funding, being peer reviewed, and enabling therapies.

Listed here are a number of published articles documenting the effects, varieties, and mechanisms of cannabinoids within the endocannabinoid system throughout human and animal bodies.

Cannabinoids are classified here as:

  • Phytocannabinoids – cannabinoids found in leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds collected from the Cannabis sativa plant.
  • Endogenous – cannabinoids made by the body: examples include N-arachidonoylethanolamine or anandamide (AE) or 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). AE and 2-AG activity can be manipulated by inhibiting their corresponding hydrolases FAAH or MAGL, preventing their degradation.
  • Purified naturally occurring cannabinoids purified from plant sources: examples include cannabidiol (CBD) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC),.
  • Synthetic cannabinoids synthesized in a laboratory: examples include CB1 agonists (CPP-55, ACPA), CB2 agonists (JWH-133, NMP7, AM1241), CB1/CB2 nonselective agonist (CP55940), ajulemic acid (AJA), nabilone, and dronabinol.¹


Nervous System Readings

Endocannabinoids in nervous system health and disease: the big picture in a nutshell

by Stephen D. Skaper and Vincenzo Di Marzo

“Research on the ECS has recently aroused enormous interest not only for the physiological functions, but also for the promising therapeutic potentials of drugs interfering with the activity of cannabinoid receptors. Many of the former relate to stress-recovery systems and to the maintenance of homeostatic balance. Among other functions, the ECS is involved in neuroprotection, modulation of nociception, regulation of motor activity, neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity and the control of certain phases of memory processing. In addition, the ECS acts to modulate the immune and inflammatory responses and to maintain a positive energy balance.”

Immunity Related Readings

The Emerging Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Endocrine Regulation and Energy Balance

By Uberto Pagotto, Giovanni Marsicano, Daniela Cota, Beat Lutz, Renato Pasquali

“CB1 receptor was originally described as the “brain type” cannabinoid receptor, because its levels of expression were high in the brain . However, recent studies attribute new sites of action of endocannabinoids to many peripheral organs through CB1 receptor activation. The generalization for CB1 receptor being the eminent “brain type” receptor is therefore no longer appropriate. Conversely, CB2 receptors are present almost exclusively in immune and blood cells, where they may participate in regulating immune responses.”
“The endocannabinoid system is present in the gastrointestinal tract where it modulates several functions, including motility, inflammation, and secretion.”

Pain Related Readings

The Analgesic Potential of Cannabinoids

by Jaseena Elikottil, MBBS, Pankaj Gupta, MD,2 and Kalpna Gupta, PhD

“However, the efficacy of individual products is variable and dependent upon the route of administration. Since opioids are the only therapy for severe pain, analgesic ability of cannabinoids may provide a much-needed alternative to opioids. Moreover, cannabinoids act synergistically with opioids and act as opioid sparing agents, allowing lower doses and fewer side effects from chronic opioid therapy. Thus, rational use of cannabis based medications deserves serious consideration to alleviate the suffering of patients due to severe pain.”

Role of the Cannabinoid System in Pain Control and Therapeutic Implications for the Management of Acute and Chronic Pain Episodes

by J Manzanares, MD Julian, and A Carrascosa

“Insofar as pain is concerned, it is well known that cannabinoid receptor agonists have antinociceptive and anti-hyperalgesic effects at the peripheral and central (spinal and supraspinal) levels, as has been demonstrated in acute and chronic pain models [69, 116]. Cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids are present in pain circuits from the peripheral sensory nerve endings up to the brain (Fig. (Fig.1).1). Cannabinoid receptor agonists modulate nociceptive thresholds by regulating neuronal activity [4], but they also relieve pain by acting on non-nervous tissues.”

Stress and Anxiety Related Readings

Cannabidiol blocks long-lasting behavioral consequences of predator threat stress: Possible involvement of 5HT1A receptors

by Alline CristinaCampos, Frederico Rogério Ferreira, Francisco Silveira Guimarães

“Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an incapacitating syndrome that follows a traumatic experience. Predator exposure promotes long-lasting anxiogenic effect in rodents, an effect related to symptoms found in PTSD patients. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotomimetic component of Cannabis sativa with anxiolytic effects. The present study investigated the anti-anxiety actions of CBD administration in a model of PTSD. Male Wistar rats exposed to a predator (cat) received, 1 h later, singled or repeated i.p. administration of vehicle or CBD.”

Pet Related Readings

Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs

By Lauri-Jo Gamble, Jordyn M. Boesch, Christopher W. Frye, Wayne S. Schwark, Sabine Mann, Lisa Wolfe, Holly Brown, Erin S. Berthelsen and Joseph J. Wakshlag

“Clinically, canine brief pain inventory and Hudson activity scores showed a significant decrease in pain and increase in activity (p < 0.01) with CBD oil. Veterinary assessment showed decreased pain during CBD treatment (p < 0.02). No side effects were reported by owners, however, serum chemistry showed an increase in alkaline phosphatase during CBD treatment (p < 0.01).

Clinical significance: This pharmacokinetic and clinical study suggests that 2 mg/kg of CBD twice daily can help increase comfort and activity in dogs with OA (osteoarthritis)”


¹ National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2018, May 31). NIH Research on Marijuana and Cannabinoids. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from